Pavullo nel Frignano, which stands at 686 metres above sea level, is situated halfway between the plain and the Upper Modenese Apennines, and is easily reached from both Modena and Bologna by taking the Via Estense. It is the largest and most important town in the Modenese Apennines, a real “mountain town”, capital of the area, where the Mountain Community of Frignano has its base. The name Pavullo comes from the word “paule” or “palude”, meaning marshland, near to which the first primitive settlement developed. The oldest records date back to the settlement of the Ligurian Friniates, a people who occupied our region in ancient times and ruled over it for almost three thousand years. After mixed fortunes and bitter fighting the Friniates were beaten by the Romans who settled in the central part of the area of Frignano in a "Castrum Feronianum", a military settlement, which stood above the modern-day centre of Pavullo near the villages of Poggiocastro, la Torricella and Monteobizzo. In the medieval period, Pavullo became an important market town thanks to the existence of the hospital of Saint Lazarus, which was originally intended as a refuge for the feudatory and people from barbarian attacks. Thanks to the construction of the new Via Giardini, Pavullo grew considerably also after the year 1832, when it became the capital of Frignano, taking over from Sestola. In the same year, Duke Francesco IV had a summer residence built in Pavullo, the current day Palazzo Ducale. These were the last years of power for the Este family but they were of great importance for Pavullo, which became capital of a province of the Este territories. Upon the unification of Italy Pavullo lost this privilege but remained as capital of the area until 1926. The mountains which surround the valley of Pavullo are covered in chestnut, oak and fir trees. Downy oaks, field maples, flowering ashes, elms, durmast oaks, Turkey oaks, ashes and Scots pines are also common. Willows and poplar trees grow along the banks of streams and in more humid areas, and splendid broom and juniper shrubs grow naturally in the more desolate areas. There is also a rich undergrowth: mushrooms, ferns, ivy and moss are all to be found. Overlooking the left banks of the Scoltenna and Panaro rivers, the Nature Reserve of Sassoguidano and Sassomassiccio is of great interest. The first tradition that comes to mind when thinking of Pavullo is without doubt the “crescentina” (small discs of flat bread), the most traditional and typical dish from the area of Frignano. The crescentina, also incorrectly known as “tigella”, was a staple part of the diet of our rural community, with its simple, genuine ingredients: flour, water and salt. Pavullo proudly keeps its traditions alive and this is evident in the numerous feasts and festivals held in the summer months in honour of the patron saints of the parish churches. Various folklore groups – the Verica Folklore Group, the Pavullo Folklore Group, the “R. Montecuccoli” choir and the “Voices of Frignano” Choir make every effort to keep our traditions alive; the groups with their entertainers and the choirs with their folk songs – sung in the local dialect – travel around the whole of Italy and even abroad so as to bring our music and ancient customs to a wider audience.